Section 6: Earthquake

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Why Are Earthquakes a Threat to the City of West Covina??

The most recent significant earthquake event affecting Southern California was the January 17th 1994 Northridge Earthquake. At 4:31 A.M. on Monday, January 17, a moderate but very damaging earthquake with a magnitude of 6.7 struck the San Fernando Valley. In the following days and weeks, thousands of aftershocks occurred, causing additional damage to affected structures.

57 people were killed and more than 1,500 people seriously injured. For days afterward, thousands of homes and businesses were without electricity; tens of thousands had no gas; and nearly 50,000 had little or no water. Approximately 15,000 structures were moderately to severely damaged, which left thousands of people temporarily homeless. 66,500 buildings were inspected. Nearly 4,000 were severely damaged and over 11,000 were moderately damaged. Several collapsed bridges and overpasses created commuter havoc on the freeway system. Extensive damage was caused by ground shaking, but earthquake triggered liquefaction and dozens of fires also caused additional severe damage. This extremely strong ground motion in large portions of Los Angeles County resulted in record economic losses.

However, the earthquake occurred early in the morning on a holiday. This circumstance considerably reduced the potential effects. Many collapsed buildings were unoccupied, and most businesses were not yet open. The direct and indirect economic losses ran into the 10's of billions of dollars.

Historical and geological records show that California has a long history of seismic events. Southern California is probably best known for the San Andreas Fault, a 400-mile long fault running from the Mexican border to a point offshore, west of San Francisco. "Geologic studies show that over the past 1,400 to 1,500 years large earthquakes have occurred at about 130 year intervals on the southern San Andreas Fault. As the last large earthquake on the southern San Andreas occurred in 1857, that section of the fault is considered a likely location for an earthquake within the next few decades."

But San Andreas is only one of dozens of known earthquake faults that criss-cross Southern California. Some of the better known faults include the Newport-Inglewood, Whittier, Chatsworth, Elsinore, Hollywood, Los Alamitos, and Palos Verdes faults. Beyond the known faults, there are a potentially large number of "blind" faults that underlie the surface of Southern California. One such blind fault was involved in the Whittier Narrows earthquake in October 1987.

Although the most famous of the faults, the San Andreas, is capable of producing an earthquake with a magnitude of 8+ on the Richter scale, some of the "lesser" faults have the potential to inflict greater damage on the urban core of the Los Angeles Basin. Seismologists believe that a 6.0 earthquake on the Newport-Inglewood would result in far more death and destruction than a "great" quake on the San Andreas, because the San Andreas is relatively remote from the urban centers of Southern California.

For decades, partnerships have flourished between the USGS, Cal Tech, the California Geological Survey and universities to share research and educational efforts with Californians. Tremendous earthquake mapping and mitigation efforts have been made in California in the past two decades, and public awareness has risen remarkably during this time. Major federal, state, and local government agencies and private organizations support earthquake risk reduction, and have made significant contributions in reducing the adverse impacts of earthquakes. Despite the progress, the majority of California communities remain unprepared because there is a general lack of understanding regarding earthquake hazards among Californians.

Table of Earthquake Events In the Southern California Region
sect6-1
Source:
http://pasadena.wr.usgs.gov/info/cahist_eqs.html

To better understand the earthquake hazard, the scientific community has looked at historical records and accelerated research on those faults that are the sources of the earthquakes occurring in the Southern California region. Historical earthquake records can generally be divided into records of the pre-instrumental period and the instrumental period. In the absence of instrumentation, the detection of earthquakes is based on observations and felt reports, and is dependent upon population density and distribution. Since California was sparsely populated in the 1800s, the detection of pre-instrumental earthquakes is relatively difficult. However, two very large earthquakes, the Fort Tejon in 1857 (7.9) and the Owens Valley in 1872 (7.6) are evidence of the tremendously damaging potential of earthquakes in Southern California. In more recent times two 7.3 earthquakes struck Southern California, in Kern County (1952) and Landers (1992). The damage from these four large earthquakes was limited because the occurred in areas which were sparsely populated at the time they happened. The seismic risk is much more severe today than in the past because the population at risk is in the millions, rather than a few hundred or a few thousand persons.

History of Earthquake Events in Southern California

Since seismologists started recording and measuring earthquakes, there have been tens of thousands of recorded earthquakes in Southern California, most with a magnitude below three. No community in Southern California is beyond the reach of a damaging earthquake. Table 6-1 describes the historical earthquake events that have affected Southern California.

earthquake faultsCauses and Characteristics of Earthquakes in Southern California

Earthquake Faults

A fault is a fracture between blocks of the earth's crust where either side moves relative to the other along a parallel plane to the fracture.

Strike-slip
Strike-slip faults are vertical or almost vertical rifts where the earth's plates move mostly horizontally. From the observers perspective, if the opposite block looking across the fault moves to the right, the slip style is called a right lateral fault; if the block moves left, the shift is called a left lateral fault.

Dip-slip
Dip-slip faults are slanted fractures where the blocks mostly shift vertically. If the earth above an inclined fault moves down, the fault is called a normal fault, but when the rock above the fault moves up, the fault is called a reverse fault. Thrust faults have a reverse fault with a dip of 45 Oor less.

earthquakefaultmap
MAP 4 EARTHQUAKE FAULT MAP (So. California)

Dr. Kerry Sieh of Cal Tech has investigated the San Andreas fault at Pallett Creek. "The record at Pallett Creek shows that rupture has recurred about every 130 years, on average, over the past 1500 years. But actual intervals have varied greatly, from less than 50 years to more than 300.

The physical cause of such irregular recurrence remains unknown." Damage from a great quake on the San Andreas would be widespread throughout Southern California.

Earthquake Related Hazards

Ground shaking, landslides, liquefaction, and amplification are the specific hazards associated with earthquakes. The severity of these hazards depends on several factors, including soil and slope conditions, proximity to the fault, earthquake magnitude, and the type of earthquake.

Ground Shaking
Ground shaking is the motion felt on the earth's surface caused by seismic waves generated by the earthquake. It is the primary cause of earthquake damage. The strength of ground shaking depends on the magnitude of the earthquake, the type of fault, and distance from the epicenter (where the earthquake originates). Buildings on poorly consolidated and thick soils will typically see more damage than buildings on consolidated soils and bedrock.

Earthquake Induced Landslides
Earthquake induced landslides are secondary earthquake hazards that occur from ground shaking and could effect the City of West Covina. Should this occur in West Covina it could damage roads, buildings, utilities, and other critical facilities needed in responding to and recovering from an earthquake. Many communities in Southern California, including West Covina, have a high likelihood of encountering such risks, especially in areas with steep slopes.

Liquefaction
Liquefaction occurs when ground shaking causes wet granular soils to change from a solid state to a liquid state. This results in the loss of soil strength and the soil's ability to support weight. Buildings and their occupants are at risk when the ground can no longer support these buildings and structures. Many communities in Southern California are built on ancient river bottoms and have sandy soil. In some cases this ground may be subject to liquefaction, depending on the depth of the water table.

Amplification
Soils and soft sedimentary rocks near the earth's surface can modify ground shaking caused by earthquakes. One of these modifications is amplification. Amplification increases the magnitude of the seismic waves generated by the earthquake. The amount of amplification is influenced by the thickness of geologic materials and their physical properties. Buildings and structures built on soft and unconsolidated soils can face greater risk. Amplification can also occur in areas with deep sediment filled basins and on ridge tops.

Figure 6-1: Seismic Zones in California

seismic zones

Earthquake Hazard Assessment

Hazard Identification
In California, many agencies are focused on seismic safety issues: the State's Seismic Safety Commission, the Applied Technology Council, Governor's Office of Emergency Services, United States Geological Survey, Cal Tech, the California Geological Survey as well as a number of universities and private foundations.

These organizations, in partnership with other state and federal agencies, have undertaken a rigorous program in California to identify seismic hazards and risks including active fault identification, bedrock shaking, tsunami inundation zones, ground motion amplification, liquefaction, and earthquake induced landslides. Seismic hazard maps have been published and are available for many communities in California through the State Division of Mines and Geology. Map 4 illustrates the known earthquake faults in Southern California.

earthquake hazard map
  

There are numerous faults running through Southern California. The proliferation of fault activity in California is largely the result of the tectonic movement of the Earth's crustal plates. Two plates in action in the Southern California area are the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The results of these movements and the break between adjacent rocks are faults. Along with the San Andreas Fault, one of the most noted and studied, there are numerous other faults. If you are looking at change in the landscape, e.g. mountains, there is probably a nearby fault that has caused this topographic feature. Other nearby faults include the Indian Hill fault, Sierra Madre fault, Whittier fault, Chino-Central Ave. fault, and the Elsinore fault.

There are traces of two known faults within the borders of West Covina, these are the Walnut Creek fault and the San Jose Hills fault. These two faults are not well defined or studied. The Walnut Creek tracing is located under basin sediment that has for years been deposited from the San Gabriel and surrounding mountains.

Damage associated with Earthquakes are dependent on a number of variable factors, the strength or magnitude of the earthquake, the length (time) of the shaking, the distance from the earthquake, the substrate that is being affected by the quake, and the construction of the structure.

As was demonstrated in the Northridge earthquake, not only was there significant damage in the immediate area, but there was also severe damage in the City of Santa Monica, an area quite removed from the epicenter. This as been attributed to the nature of the ground built on.

AREA FAULTS

Newport-Inglewood Fault
Nearest Communities: Culver City, Inglewood, Gardena, Compton, Signal Hill, Long Beach, Seal Beach, Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Costa Mesa
Most Recent Major Rupture: March 10, 1933, M6.4 (but no surface rupture)
Interval Between Major Ruptures: unknown
Probable Magnitudes: M6.0 - 7.4
This represents a worst-case earthquake that could affect the urban areas of Central - South Eastern Los Angeles County.

Palos Verdes Fault Zone
Nearby Communities: San Pedro, Palos Verdes Estates, Torrance, Redondo Beach
Most Recent Surface Rupture: Holocene, offshore; Late Quaternary, onshore
Interval Between Major Ruptures: unknown
Probable Magnitudes: M6.0 - 7.0 (or greater?); fault geometries may allow only partial rupture at any one time
Depending on which segments, or combination of segments rupture, the damage to the South Bay could be moderate to severe.

Whittier Fault
Nearby Communities: Pico Rivera, Whittier, Montebello, La Habra, La Habra Heights
Most Recent Rupture: October 1, 1987, M5.9
Interval Between Major Ruptures: unknown
Probable Magnitudes: M6.0 - 7.2.

Elsinore Fault
Nearby Communities: Lake Elsinore, Corona, Temecula, Murrieta, Chino, Chino Hills
Most Recent Surface Rupture: May 15, 1910
Interval Between Major Ruptures: ~250 years
Probable Magnitudes: M6.5 - 7.5

San Andreas Fault Zone
Nearby Communities: Extends the length of California, eventually going off shore near San Francisco
Most Recent Major Surface Rupture: January 9, 1857
Interval Between Major Ruptures: 140 years
Probable Magnitudes: M6.8 - 8.0; fault geometries may allow only partial rupture at any one time. Depending on which segments, or combination of segments rupture, the damage to the southern California could be moderate to severe.

San Jacinto Fault Zone
Nearby Communities: Riverside, Palm Springs, San Jacinto, Banning, Yucaipa, Redlands
Most Recent Surface Rupture: April 9, 1968
Interval Between Major Ruptures: 100 - 300 years
Probable Magnitudes: M6.5 - 7.5

Sierra Madre Fault Zone
Nearby Communities: San Pedro, Palos Verdes Estates, Torrance, Redondo Beach
Most Recent Surface Rupture: Holocene, offshore; Late Quaternary, onshore
Interval Between Major Ruptures: unknown
Probable Magnitudes: M6.0 - 7.0 (or greater?); fault geometries may allow only partial rupture at any one time
Depending on which segments, or combination of segments rupture, the damage to the South Bay could be moderate to severe.

San Jose Fault
Nearby Communities: Claremont, La Verne, Pomona, Walnut, West Covina
Most Recent Rupture: February 28, 1990, M5.4 No surface rupture.
Interval Between Major Ruptures: unknown
Probable Magnitudes: M6.0 - 6.5

Walnut Creek Fault
Nearby Communities: Covina, San Dimas, West Covina
Most Recent Surface Rupture: Unknown
Interval Between Major Ruptures: unknown
Probable Magnitudes: Unknown

Additional information at:
http://www.data.scec.org/catalog_search/index.html

In California, each earthquake is followed by revisions and improvements in the Building Codes. The 1933 Long Beach resulted in the Field Act, affecting school construction. The 1971 Sylmar earthquake brought another set of increased structural standards. Similar re-evaluations occurred after the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1994 Northridge earthquakes. These code changes have resulted in stronger and more earthquake resistant structures.

The Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act was passed in 1972 to mitigate the hazard of surface faulting to structures for human occupancy. This state law was a direct result of the 1971 San Fernando Earthquake, which was associated with extensive surface fault ruptures that damaged numerous homes, commercial buildings, and other structures. Surface rupture is the most easily avoided seismic hazard.

The Seismic Hazards Mapping Act, passed in 1990, addresses non-surface fault rupture earthquake hazards, including liquefaction and seismically induced landslides. The State Department of Conservation operates the Seismic Mapping Program for California. Extensive information is available at their website:
http://gmw.consrv.ca.gov/shmp/index.htm

Vulnerability Assessment

The effects of earthquakes span a large area, and large earthquakes occurring in many parts of the Southern California region would probably be felt throughout the region. However, the degree to which the earthquakes are felt, and the damages associated with them may vary. At risk from earthquake damage are large stocks of old buildings and bridges: many high tech and hazardous materials facilities: extensive sewer, water, and natural gas pipelines; earth dams; petroleum pipelines; and other critical facilities and private property located in the county. The relative or secondary earthquake hazards, which are liquefaction, ground shaking, amplification, and earthquake-induced landslides, can be just as devastating as the earthquake.

The California Geological Survey has identified areas most vulnerable to liquefaction. Liquefaction occurs when ground shaking causes wet granular soils to change from a solid state to a liquid state. This results in the loss of soil strength and the soil's ability to support weight. Buildings and their occupants are at risk when the ground can no longer support these buildings and structures. Map 5 identifies the areas in the City of West Covina that have soils vulnerable to liquefaction.

Southern California has many active landslide areas, and a large earthquake could trigger accelerated movement in these slide areas, in addition to jarring loose other unknown areas of landslide risk. Map 5 identifies the areas in the City of West Covina that slopes, if undeveloped, may be susceptible to earthquake induced landslides.

Risk Analysis

Risk analysis is the third phase of a hazard assessment. Risk analysis involves estimating the damage and costs likely to be experienced in a geographic area over a period of time . Factors included in assessing earthquake risk include population and property distribution in the hazard area, the frequency of earthquake events, landslide susceptibility, buildings, infrastructure, and disaster preparedness of the region. This type of analysis can generate estimates of the damages to the region due to an earthquake event in a specific location. FEMA's software program, HAZUS, uses mathematical formulas and information about building stock, local geology and the location and size of potential earthquakes, economic data, and other information to estimate losses from a potential earthquake. The HAZUS software is available from FEMA at no cost.

For greater Southern California there are multiple worst case scenarios, depending on which fault might rupture, and which communities are in proximity to the fault. But damage will not necessarily be limited to immediately adjoining communities. Depending on the hypocenter of the earthquake, seismic waves may be transmitted through the ground to unsuspecting communities. In the Northridge 1994 earthquake, Santa Monica suffered extensive damage, even though there was a range of mountains between it and the origin of the earthquake.

Damages for a large earthquake almost anywhere in Southern California are likely to run into the billions of dollars. Although building codes are some of the most stringent in the world, ten's of thousands of older existing buildings were built under much less rigid codes. California has laws affecting unreinforced masonry buildings (URM's) and although many building owners have retrofitted their buildings, hundreds of pre-1933 buildings still have not been brought up to current standards. The City of West Covina has one unreinforced masonry buildings.

Non-structural bracing of equipment and contents is often the most cost-effective type of seismic mitigation. Inexpensive bracing and anchoring may be the most cost effective way to protect expensive equipment. Non-structural bracing of equipment and furnishings will also reduce the chance of injury for the occupants of a building.

Community Earthquake Issues What is Susceptible to Earthquakes?

Earthquake damage occurs because humans have built structures that cannot withstand severe shaking. Buildings, airports, schools, and lifelines (highways and utility lines) suffer damage in earthquakes and can cause death or injury to humans. The welfare of homes, major businesses, and public infrastructure is very important. Addressing the reliability of buildings, critical facilities, and infrastructure, and understanding the potential costs to government, businesses, and individuals as a result of an earthquake, are challenges faced by the city.

Dams
There are a total of 103 dams in Los Angeles County, owned by 23 agencies or organizations, ranging from the Federal government to Home Owner Associations. These dams hold billions of gallons of water in reservoirs. Releases of water from the major reservoirs are designed to protect Southern California from floodwaters and to store domestic water. Seismic activity can compromise the dam structures, and the resultant flooding could cause catastrophic flooding. Following the 1971 Sylmar earthquake the Lower Van Norman Dam showed signs of structural compromise, and tens of thousands of persons had to be evacuated until the dam could be drained. The dam has never been refilled. Dams that would have a direct impact on the City of West Covina include the Santa Fe dam, Bonnelli dam, and San Dimas dam.

Buildings
The built environment is susceptible to damage from earthquakes. Buildings that collapse can trap and bury people. Lives are at risk and the cost to clean up the damages is great. In most California communities, including the city of West Covina, many buildings were built before 1993 when building codes were not as strict. In addition, retrofitting is not required except under certain conditions and can be expensive. Therefore, the number of buildings at risk remains high. The California Seismic Safety Commission makes annual reports on the progress of the retrofitting of unreinforced masonry buildings.

Infrastructure and Communication
Residents in the City of West Covina commute frequently by automobiles and public transportation such as buses and rail. An earthquake can greatly damage bridges and roads, hampering emergency response efforts and the normal movement of people and goods. Damaged infrastructure strongly affects the economy of the community because it disconnects people from work, school, food, and leisure, and separates businesses from their customers and suppliers,

Bridge Damage
Even modern bridges can sustain damage during earthquakes, leaving them unsafe for use. Some bridges have failed completely due to strong ground motion. Bridges are a vital transportation link - with even minor damages making some areas inaccessible. Because bridges vary in size, materials, location and design, any given earthquake will affect them differently. Bridges built before the mid-1970' s have a significantly higher risk of suffering structural damage during a moderate to large earthquake compared with those built after 1980 when design improvements were made.

Much of the interstate highway system was built in the mid to late 1960's. The bridges in the City of West Covina are state, county or privately owned. Caltrans has retrofitted most bridges on the freeway systems, however there are still some county maintained bridges that are not retrofitted. The FHWA requires that bridges on the National Bridge Inventory be inspected every 2 years. Caltrans checks when the bridges are inspected because they administer the Federal funds for bridge projects.

Damage to Lifelines
Lifelines are the connections between communities and outside services. They include water and gas lines, transportation systems, electricity, and communication networks. Ground shaking and amplification can cause pipes to break open, power lines to fall, roads and railways to crack or move, and radio and telephone communication to cease. Disruption to transportation makes it especially difficult to bring in supplies or services. Lifelines need to be usable after earthquake to allow for rescue, recovery, and rebuilding efforts and to relay important information to the public.

Southern California Edison, provider of electricity in West Covina, has identified efforts it would take to mitigate damage resulting from an earthquake. These measures, some of which have already been put in place, include:

Reinforcement of existing equipment and structures
  • Shock absorbing capability was added at base of transformer bushings.
  • Anchorages were reinforced at base of transformers
  • Braces were added at bottom of transformer radiators.
Change in equipment layouts to reduce interactions among substation equipment
  • Surge arrestors were relocated away from transformers to independent supports.
  • Extra length of conductors (cables) were provided between equipment
Adoption of seismic safe models and new material
  • Live tank circuit breakers were replaced with dead tank circuit breakers at every opportunity to lower the center of gravity and reduce internal seismic loads.
  • Conventional porcelain insulators were replaced with polymer / silicon rubber insulators in selective applications to reduce seismic loads.
  • High-strength insulators are used more generously throughout the system.
Continuous upgrades to engineering design criteria based on the latest industrial progress, geotechnical findings, and Code revisions. For instance, Dynamic Shake Table tests were recently made mandatory for certain equipment in addition to analytical design.

These same measures to protect the electric infrastructure from damage due to an earthquake, may mitigate damage due to other natural hazards such as flooding or high winds. It is realized that it would be economically impossible to build a system impervious to earthquakes. But a system utilizing new technology and better information about the risks can be designed to keep the system operational or minimize the recovery time after a disaster.

Disruption of Critical Services
Critical facilities include police stations, fire stations, hospitals, shelters, and other facilities that provide important services to the community. These facilities and their services need to be functional after an earthquake event.

Businesses
Seismic activity can cause great loss to businesses, both large-scale corporations and small retail shops. When a company is forced to stop production for just a day, the economic loss can be tremendous, especially when its market is at a national or global level. Seismic activity can create economic loss that presents a burden to large and small shop owners who may have difficulty recovering from their losses.

Forty percent of businesses do not reopen after a disaster and another twenty-five percent fail within one year according to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Similar statistics from the United States Small Business Administration indicate that over ninety percent of businesses fail within two years after being struck by a disaster.

Individual Preparedness
Because the potential for earthquake occurrences and earthquake related property damage is relatively high in the City of West Covina, increasing individual preparedness is a significant need. Strapping down heavy furniture, water heaters, and expensive personal property, as well as being earthquake insured, and anchoring buildings to foundations are just a few steps individuals can take to prepare for an earthquake.

Death and Injury
Death and injury can occur both inside and outside of buildings due to collapsed buildings falling equipment, furniture, debris, and structural materials. Downed power lines and broken water and gas lines can also endanger human life.

Fire
Downed power lines or broken gas mains can trigger fires. If the Fire Stations in West Covina suffer building or lifeline damage, quick response to extinguish fires is less likely. Furthermore, major incidents will demand a larger share our resources, and initially smaller fires and problems will receive little or insufficient resources in the initial hours after a major earthquake event. Loss of electricity may cause a loss of water pressure in some communities, further hampering fire fighting ability. The City of West Covina has a combination water system with elevated stored water to supply the city in the event of power outages to water pumps.

Debris
After damage to a variety of structures, much time is spent cleaning up brick, glass, wood, steel or concrete building elements, office and home contents, and other materials. Developing a strong debris management strategy is essential in post-disaster recovery. Occurrence of a disaster does not exempt the City of West Covina from compliance with AB 939 regulations.

Existing Mitigation Activities

Existing mitigation activities include current mitigation programs and activities that are being implemented by county, regional, state, or federal agencies or organizations.

City of West Covina 2001 California Building Codes
Implementation of earthquake mitigation policy most often takes place at the local government level. The City of West Covina Department Public Works enforces building codes pertaining to earthquake hazards.

The City utilizes the 2001 California Building Code Chapter 16 division IV for Earthquake Design

1605. 1 (Distribution of Horizontal Sheer);
1605. 2 (Stability against Overturning);
1626 (Seismic);
1605. 3 (Anchorage); and
1632, 1633, 1633. 9 deal with specific earthquake hazards.
The City of West Covina Planning Department enforces the zoning and land use regulations relating to earthquake hazards.

Generally, these codes seek to discourage development in areas that could be prone to flooding, landslide, wildfire and / or seismic hazards; and where development is permitted, that the applicable construction standards are met. Developers in hazard-prone areas may be required to retain a qualified professional engineer to evaluate level of risk on the site and recommend appropriate mitigation measures.

Coordination Among Building Officials
The City of West Covina utilizes the Uniform Building Code sets the minimum design and construction standards for new buildings. The City of West Covina routinely adopts the most recent seismic standards in its building code, which requires that new buildings be built at a higher seismic standard.

The City of West Covina also requires that site-specific seismic hazard investigations be performed for new essential facilities, major structures, hazardous facilities, and special occupancy structures such as schools, hospitals, and emergency response facilities.

Businesses/Private Sector
Natural hazards have a devastating impact on businesses. In fact, of all businesses which close following a disaster, more than forty-three percent never reopen, and an additional twenty-nine percent close for good within the next two years. The Institute of Business and Home Safety has developed "Open for Business", which is a disaster planning toolkit to help guide businesses in preparing for and dealing with the adverse affects natural hazards. The kit integrates protection from natural disasters into the company's risk reduction measures to safeguard employees, customers, and the investment itself. The guide helps businesses secure human and physical resources during disasters, and helps to develop strategies to maintain business continuity before, during, and after a disaster occurs.

Hospitals
"The Alfred E. Alquist Hospital Seismic Safety Act ("Hospital Act") was enacted in 1973 in response to the moderate Magnitude 6.6 Sylmar Earthquake in 1971 when four major hospital campuses were severely damaged and evacuated. Two hospital buildings collapsed killing forty seven people. Three others were killed in another hospital that nearly collapsed.

In approving the Act, the Legislature noted that:
Hospitals, that house patients who have less than the capacity of normally healthy persons to protect themselves, and that must be reasonably capable of providing services to the public after a disaster, shall be designed and constructed to resist, insofar as practical, the forces generated by earthquakes, gravity and winds. (Health and Safety Code Section 129680)

When the Hospital Act was passed in 1973, the State anticipated that, based on the regular and timely replacement of aging hospital facilities, the majority of hospital buildings would be in compliance with the Act's standards within 25 years. However, hospital buildings were not, and are not, being replaced at that anticipated rate. In fact, the great majority of the State's urgent care facilities are now more than 40 years old.

The moderate Magnitude 6.7 Northridge Earthquake in 1994 caused $3 billion in hospital-related damage and evacuations. Twelve hospital buildings constructed before the Act were cited (red tagged) as unsafe for occupancy after the earthquake. Those hospitals that had been built in accordance with the 1973 Hospital Act were very successful in resisting structural damage. However, nonstructural damage (for example, plumbing and ceiling systems) was still extensive in those post-1973 buildings.

Senate Bill 1953 ("SB 1953"), enacted in 1994 after the Northridge Earthquake, expanded the scope of the 1973 Hospital Act. Under SB 1953, all hospitals are required, as of January 1, 2008, to survive earthquakes without collapsing or posing the threat of significant loss of life. The The 1994 Act further mandates that all existing hospitals be seismically evaluated, and retrofitted, if needed, by 2030, so that they are in substantial compliance with the Act (which requires that the hospital buildings be reasonably capable of providing services to the public after disasters). SB 1953 applies to all urgent care facilities (including those built prior to the 1973 Hospital Act) and affects approximately 2,500 buildings on 475 campuses.

SB 1953 directed the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development ("OSHPD"), in consultation with the Hospital Building Safety Board, to develop emergency regulations including "...earthquake performance categories with subgradations for risk to life, structural soundness, building contents, and nonstructural systems that are critical to providing basic services to hospital inpatients and the public after a disaster." (Health and Safety Code Section 130005)

The Seismic Safety Commission Evaluation of the State's Hospital Seismic Safety Policies

In 2001, recognizing the continuing need to assess the adequacy of policies, and the application of advances in technical knowledge and understanding, the California Seismic Safety Commission created an Ad Hoc Committee to re-examine the compliance with the Alquist Hospital Seismic Safety Act. The formation of the Committee was also prompted by the recent evaluations of hospital buildings reported to OSHPD that revealed that a large percentage (40%) of California's operating hospitals are in the highest category of collapse risk."

California Earthquake Mitigation Legislation

California is painfully aware of the threats it faces from earthquakes. Dating back to the 19th century, Californians have been killed, injured, and lost property as a result of earthquakes. As the State's population continues to grow, and urban areas become even more densely built up, the risk will continue to increase. For decades the Legislature has passed laws to strengthen the built environment and protect the citizens. Table 6-2 provides a sampling of some of the 200 plus laws in the State's codes.

sect6-2

Earthquake Education

Earthquake research and education activities are conducted at several major universities in the Southern California region, including Cal Tech, USC, UCLA, UCSB, UCI, and UCSB. The local clearinghouse for earthquake information is the Southern California Earthquake Center located at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, Telephone: (213) 740-5843, Fax: (213) 740-0011, Email: SCEinfo@usc.edu, Website: http://www.scec.org. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) is a community of scientists and specialists who actively coordinate research on earthquake hazards at nine core institutions, and communicate earthquake information to the public. SCEC is a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center and is co-funded by the United States Geological Survey (USGS).

In addition, Los Angeles County along with other Southern California counties, sponsors the Emergency Survival Program (ESP), an educational program for learning how to prepare for earthquakes and other disasters. Many school districts have very active emergency preparedness programs that include earthquake drills and periodic disaster response team exercises.

Earthquake Mitigation Action Items

The earthquake mitigation action items provide guidance on suggesting specific activities that agencies, organizations, and residents in the City of West Covina can undertake to reduce risk and prevent loss from earthquake events. Each action item is followed by ideas for implementation, which can be used by the steering committee and local decision makers in pursuing strategies for implementation;


ST-EQ # l: Integrate new earthquake hazard mapping data for the City of West Covina and improve technical analysis of earthquake hazards.

Ideas for Implementation:
  • Provide HAZUS training to City of West Covina personnel.
  • Update the City of West Covina earthquake HAZUS data using more localized data including the building inventory to improve accuracy of the vulnerability assessment for the City of West Covina; and
  • Conduct risk analysis incorporating HAZUS data and hazard maps using GIS technology to identify risk sites and further assist in prioritizing mitigation activities and assessing the adequacy of current land use requirements,
Coordinating Organization: Public Works Department
Timeline: 2 years
Plan Goals Addressed: Partnerships and Implementation , Protect Life and Property
Constraints: Training time for City staff.

ST-EQ # 2: Incorporate the Regional Earthquake Transportation Evacuation Routes developed by the Regional Emergency Managers Group into appropriate planning documents.

Ideas for Implementation:
  • Update the transportation routes map in the City of West Covina Natural hazard Mitigation Plan with the evacuation routes data; and
  • Integrate the evacuation routes data into the City of West Covina Emergency Operations Plan,
  • Examine information on both local and regional evacuation routes.
Coordinating Organization: City of West Covina OES
Timeline: 2 years
Plan Goals Addressed: Emergency Services
Constraints: Procuring data from outside agencies.

LT-EQ # l: Identify funding sources for structural and nonstructural retrofitting of structures that are identified as seismically vulnerable.

Ideas for Implementation:
  • Provide information for property owners, small businesses, and organizations on sources of funds (loans, grants, etc.); and
  • Explore options for including seismic retrofitting in existing programs such as low-income housing, insurance reimbursements, and pre and post disaster repairs,
Coordinating Organization: Finance Department
Timeline: Ongoing
Plan Goals Addressed: Partnerships and Implementation, Public Awareness
Constraints: Funding opportunities.

LT-EQ # 2: Encourage seismic strength evaluations of critical facilities in the City of West Covina to identify vulnerabilities for mitigation of schools and universities, public infrastructure, and critical facilities to meet current seismic standards.

Ideas for Implementation:
  • Work with School Districts on the development of their Hazard Mitigation Plans.
  • Encourage owners of non-retrofitted structures to upgrade them to meet seismic standards; and
  • Encourage water providers to replace old cast iron pipes with more ductile iron, and identify partnership opportunities with other agencies for pipe replacement,
Coordinating Organization: Public Works Department
Timeline: 5+ years
Plan Goals Addressed: Protect Life and Property, Emergency Services
Constraints: Coordination with Community Partners.

LT-EQ # 3: Encourage reduction of nonstructural and structural earthquake hazards in homes, schools, businesses, and government offices.

Ideas for Implementation:
  • Provide information to government building and school facility managers and teachers on securing bookcases, filing cabinets, light fixtures, and other objects that can cause injuries and block exits; and
  • Encourage facility managers, business owners, and teachers to refer to FEMA's practical guidebook: "Reducing the Risks Nonstructural Earthquake Damage"; and
  • Encourage homeowners and renters to use "Is Your Home Protected from Earthquake Disaster? A Homeowner's Guide to Earthquake Retrofit" (IBHS) for economic and efficient mitigation techniques; and
  • Explore partnerships to provide retrofitting classes for homeowners, renters, building professionals, and contractors; and
Coordinating Organization: Office of Emergency Services
Timeline: Ongoing
Plan Goals Addressed: Protect Life and Property, Public Awareness
Constraints:


Earthquake Resource Directory

Local and Regional Resources

sect6-3

State Resources

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Federal Resources and Programs

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Additional Resources

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Publications

"Land Use Planning for Earthquake Hazard Mitigation: Handbook for Planners" Wolfe, Myer R. et. al., (1986) University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science, National Science Foundation.
This handbook provides techniques that planners and others can utilize to help mitigate for seismic hazards, It provides information on the effects of earthquakes, sources on risk assessment, and effects of earthquakes on the built environment. The handbook also gives examples on application and implementation of planning techniques to be used by local communities.
Contact: Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center
Address: University of Colorado, 482 UCB,
Boulder, CO 80309-0482
Phone: (303) 492-6818
Fax: (303) 492-2151
Website: http://www.colorado.edu/UCB/Research/IBS/hazards

"Public Assistance Debris Management Guide", FEMA (July 2000). The Debris Management Guide was developed to assist local officials in planning, mobilizing, organizing. and controlling large-scale debris clearance, removal, and disposal operations, Debris management is generally associated with post-disaster recovery. While it should be compliant with local and county emergency operations plans, developing strategies to ensure strong debris management is a way to integrate debris management within mitigation activities. The "Public Assistance Debris Management Guide" is available in hard copy or on the FEMA website.

Section 6 - Earthquakes End Notes

i http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq3/when.html
ii
 Institute for Business and Home Safety Resources (April 2001)
iii Planning for Natural Hazards: The California Technical Resource Guide, Department of Land Conservation and Development (July 2000)
iv http://www.seismic.ca.gov/pub/CSSC_2001-04_Hospital.pdf
v Institute for Business and Home Safety Resources (April 2001),
vi http://www.consrv.ca.gov/CGS/rghm/ap/
vii Ibid
viii Burby, R. (Ed.) Cooperating with Nature: Confronting Natural Hazards with Land Use Planning for Sustainable Communities (1998), Washington D.C., Joseph Henry Press.
ix FEMA HAZUS http://www.fema.gov/hazus/hazus2.htm (May 2001).
x Source: Los Angeles County Public Works Department, March 2004
xi Southern California Edison Hazard Mitigation Planning; Southern California Edison, April 2004
xii http://www.chamber101.com/2programs_committee/natural_disasters/disasterpreparedness/Forty.htm
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